MODES OF TRANSMISSION
Bloodborne pathogens such as HBV and HIV can be transmitted through contact with infected human blood and other potentially infectious body fluids. Bodily fluids that are always considered infectious are:
Bodily fluids that are technically not infectious but should still be treated as such include:
It is important to know the ways exposure and transmission are most likely to occur in your particular situation, be it providing first aid to a student in the classroom, handling blood samples in the laboratory, or cleaning up blood from a hallway.
HBV and HIV are most commonly transmitted through:
Accidental puncture from contaminated needles and other sharps can result in transmission of bloodborne pathogens.
In most work or laboratory situations, transmission is most likely to occur because of accidental puncture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharps; contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids; or contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluids. For example, if someone infected with HBV cut their finger on a piece of glass, and then you cut yourself on the now infected piece of glass, it is possible that you could contract the disease. Anytime there is blood-to-blood contact with infected blood or bodily fluids, there is a slight potential for transmission.
Unbroken skin forms an impervious barrier against bloodborne pathogens. However, infected blood can enter your system through:
Bloodborne pathogens may also be transmitted through the mucous membranes of the:
For example, a splash of contaminated blood to your eye, nose, or mouth could result in transmission.
HIV CANNOT be transmitted by casual contact such as: